Anomalous Left Coronary Artery from the Pulmonary Artery -- Child

Anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) is a rare heart defect. Normally, the left coronary artery carries oxygenated blood to the heart muscle. The oxygenated blood comes from the aorta. With ALCAPA, the left coronary artery is not connected to the aorta. Instead, it is connected to the pulmonary artery. This means that the blood does not have enough oxygen in it from the lungs. With this defect, the heart muscles receive blood that is low in oxygen. The blood also leaks back into the pulmonary artery because of the low pressure in this artery. ALCAPA may be detected in newborns. In some cases, it may not be detected until the baby is aged 2-6 months. Rarely, it is diagnosed in older children.

  • Causes

    ALCAPA is a congenital defect. This means that the baby is born with it. It is not known why the left coronary artery develops abnormally.

  • Definition

    Anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) is a rare heart defect.

    Normally, the left coronary artery carries oxygenated blood to the heart muscle. The oxygenated blood comes from the aorta.

    With ALCAPA, the left coronary artery is not connected to the aorta. Instead, it is connected to the pulmonary artery. This means that the blood does not have enough oxygen in it from the lungs. With this defect, the heart muscles receive blood that is low in oxygen. The blood also leaks back into the pulmonary artery because of the low pressure in this artery.

    The Coronary Arteries
    si1902 the coronary arteries
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    ALCAPA may be detected in newborns. In some cases, it may not be detected until the baby is aged 2-6 months. Rarely, it is diagnosed in older children.

  • Diagnosis

    You will be asked about your child’s symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.

    Images may be taken of your child's bodily structures. This can be done with:

    • Echocardiogram
    • Chest x-ray
    • MRI scan
    • CT scan

    Your child's heart function may be tested. This can be done with:

    • Electrocardiogram
    • Cardiac catheterization

  • Prevention

    There is no known way to prevent ALCAPA. Getting proper prenatal care is always important.

  • Risk Factors

    Risk factors for ALCAPA are not known.

  • Symptoms

    Symptoms may include:

    • Rapid breathing
    • Poor feeding
    • Slow growth
    • Sweating
    • Irritability
    • Swelling around the eyes and/or feet


    This condition can lead to
    heart failure
    . If your child has any of these symptoms, get emergency medical care right away.

  • Treatment

    Talk with the doctor about the best treatment plan for your child. Treatment options include: