• References

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    Arch Intern Med. 1978;138:750.

    Agarwala S, Jain D, Joshi VR, Sule A. Efficacy of alendronate, a bisphosphonate, in the treatment of AVN of the hip. A prospective open-label study.

    Osteonecrosis of the hip in adults. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: Updated January 16, 2013. Accessed February 10, 2014.

    Martin K, Lawson-Ayayi S, Miremont-Salame G, et al. Symptomatic bone disorders in HIV-infected patients: incidence in the Aquitaine cohort (1999-2002).
    HIV Med. 2004;5:421.

    Matsuo K, Hirohata T, Sugioka Y, et al. Influence of alcohol intake, cigarette smoking, and occupational status on idiopathic osteonecrosis of the femoral head.
    Clin Orthop. 1988;234:115.

    Metselaar HJ, van Steenberge EJ, Bijnen AB. Incidence of osteonecrosis after renal transplantation.
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  • Resources

    Johns Hopkins University Medical School

    Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center

  • Canadian Resources