• References

    Beta-sitosterol. EBSCO Natural and Alternative Treatments website. Available at: Updated August 2011. Accessed October 7, 2011.

    Fagelman E, Lowe FC. Saw palmetto berry as a treatment for BPH.
    Rev Urol. 2001 Summer;3(3):134-8.

    Fried NM. New laser treatment approaches for benign prostatic hyperplasia.
    Curr Urol Rep. 2007 Jan;8(1):47-52.

    Greco KA, McVary KT. The role of combination medical therapy in benign prostatic hyperplasia.
    Int J Impot Res. 2008 Dec;20 Suppl 3:S33-43.

    Marberger M. Drug insight: 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia.
    Nat Clin Pract Urol. 2006 Sep;3(9):495-503.

    Prostate enlargement: Benign prostatic hyperplasia. National Kidney Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse website. Available at:
    Updated March 23, 2012. Accessed August 22, 2013.

    Roehrborn CG, Siami P, Barkin J, et al; CombAT Study Group. The effects of combination therapy with dutasteride and tamsulosin on clinical outcomes in men with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia: 4-year results from the CombAT study.
    Eur Urol. 2010;57(1):123-131.

    Ulbricht C, Basch E, Bent S, et al. Evidence-based systematic review of saw palmetto by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration.
    J Soc Integr Oncol. 2006;4(4):170-86.

    Update on the UAU guideline on the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia.
    J Urol. 2011 May; 185(5):1793-803.

    10/7/2011 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance Barry MJ, Meleth S, Lee JY, et al. Effect of increasing doses of saw palmetto extract on lower urinary tract symptoms: a randomized trial.

    10/14/2011 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance US Food and Drug Administration. FDA approves Cialis to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia. US Food and Drug Administration website. Available at:
    Updated October 6, 2011. Accessed October 14, 2011.

    5/27/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance Gacci M, Corona G, et al. Metabolic syndrome and benign prostatic enlargement: A systematic review and meta-analysis. BJU Int. 2014 Mar. [Epub ahead of print].

  • Resources

    National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Clearinghouse

    Prostate Cancer Research Institute

  • Canadian Resources

    Canadian Urological Association

    The Prostate Centre at The Princess Margaret