• References

    Bogduk N, Anat D. Degenerative joint disease of the spine. Radiol Clin North Am. 2012;15(4):613-28.

    Paassilta P, Lohiniva J, Göring HH, et al. Identification of a novel common genetic risk factor for lumbar disk disease.
    JAMA. 2001;285:1843-1849.

    Urban J, Roberts S. Degeneration of the intervertebral disc. Arthritis Res. Ther. 2003;5(3):120-130.

  • Resources

    American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons

    North American Spine Society

  • Canadian Resources

    Canadian Orthopaedic Association

    Canadian Orthopaedic Foundation