• References

    Berry PA, Wendon JA. The management of severe alcoholic liver disease and variceal bleeding in the intensive care unit.
    Curr Opin Crit Care
    . 2006;12:171-7.

    Bhasin DK, Siyad I. Variceal bleeding and portal hypertension: new lights on old horizon.
    . 2004;36(2):120-129.

    D’Amico G. The role of vasoactive drugs in the treatment of oesophageal varices.
    Expert Opinion Pharmacotherapy
    . 2004;5(2):349-360.

    Garcia-Tsao G, Sanyal AJ. Prevention and management of gastroesophageal varicies and variceal hemorrhage in cirrhosis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2007;102(9):2086-2102.

    Gastroesophageal varices. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: Updated May 13, 2013. Accessed July 10, 2013.

    Kamath PS. Esophageal variceal bleeding: primary prophylaxis.
    Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2005;3(1):90-93.

    Lubel JS, Angus PW. Modern management of portal hypertension.
    Intern Med J
    . 2005;35(1):45-9.

    Villanueva C, Piqueras M, Aracil C, et al. A randomized controlled trial comparing ligation and sclerotherapy as emergency endoscopic treatment added to somatostatin in acute variceal bleeding.
    J Hepatol.2006;45:560-7

  • Resources

    American College of Gastroenterology

    American Gastroenterological Association

  • Canadian Resources

    The Canadian Association of Gastroenterology

    Canadian Liver Foundation