Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) belongs to a group of disorders called fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. It is caused when a woman drinks alcohol during pregnancy. The alcohol can cause birth and developmental defects in the baby. These defects make up FAS.

  • Causes

    Alcohol can cross from the mother's blood to the baby's blood. It is passed through the placenta. Even a small amount of alcohol can damage the fetus. It is not known how much alcohol it takes to cause defects. The risk increases with moderate to heavy drinking and with binging. But, even social drinking may pose a danger.

    Any type of alcohol, including beer and wine, can cause birth defects.

    Blood Traveling Through Mother's Placenta to Baby
    baby fetus placenta
    Alcohol travels through this path and affects the baby's development, particularly the heart and brain.
    Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.

  • Definition

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) belongs to a group of disorders called fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. It is caused when a woman drinks
    alcohol
    during pregnancy. The alcohol can cause birth and developmental defects in the baby. These defects make up FAS.

  • Diagnosis

    The doctor will ask you about your alcohol intake while pregnant. The child's growth will be assessed. A physical exam will be done. The diagnosis is based on:

    • History of alcohol use
    • Characteristic facial appearance
    • Slow growth
    • Nervous system problems

    Some children with this condition do not have the typical physical features. Their condition is described as:

    • Fetal alcohol effect
    • Alcohol related neurodevelopmental disorder

    An early diagnosis can help your child get the proper services.

  • Prevention

    Efforts to prevent fetal alcohol syndrome are important.


    • Avoid drinking alcohol if you are pregnant or trying to get pregnant. Also, take
      folic acid
      to prevent other birth defects.
    • Avoid heavy drinking when not using birth control. Damage can occur before you even know you are pregnant.
    • Seek help from a doctor if you cannot stop drinking.
    • Use birth control until you are able to quit drinking.

  • Risk Factors

    Factors that increase your baby's chance of getting FAS:

    • Unplanned pregnancy or failing to recognize pregnancy and continuing to drink
    • Alcoholism
    • Lack of knowledge about the risks of drinking while pregnant
    • Low socioeconomic status

  • Symptoms

    Birth and developmental defects depend on when the fetus was exposed to alcohol and how much alcohol was consumed.

    Babies with FAS may have the following physical symptoms:

    • Low birth weight
    • Small size and delayed growth
    • Small head
    • Small eyes
    • Short, flat nose
    • Flat cheeks
    • Small jaws
    • Unusually shaped ears
    • Thin upper lip
    • Shaking or tremors
    • Sight and hearing problems
    • Heart defects
    • Small, abnormally formed brain
    • Vision problems
    • Ear infections

    As the infant grows, other symptoms may develop, including:

    • Difficulty eating and sleeping
    • Delayed speech
    • Learning disabilities
    • Intellectual disability
    • Poor coordination
    • Behavior problems
    • Poor ability to control impulses
    • Problems getting along with other children

    Children do not outgrow these effects. Teens and adults often experience social and emotional problems. They may develop secondary conditions, which include:

    • Problems at school
    • Inability to hold a job
    • Trouble living independently
    • Mental health problems

    • Alcohol or
      drug dependence
    • Anxiety
      disorders
    • Difficulty controlling anger
    • Legal problems

  • Treatment

    There is no specific medical treatment for this condition. Early intervention is helpful, as well as a supportive, nurturing home. The doctor may recommend hearing and vision testing, as well as testing for any other medical problems related to FAS.