Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease -- Child

Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is the back up of acid or food from the stomach to the esophagus. The esophagus is the tube that connects your mouth and stomach. GER is common in infants. It may cause them to spit up. Most infants outgrow GER within 12 months. GER that progresses to esophageal injury and other symptoms is called gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The backed-up acid irritates the lining of the esophagus. It causes heartburn, a pain in the stomach and chest. GERD can occur at any age.

  • Causes

    GERD is caused by acid or food from the stomach that regularly backs up into the esophagus. It is not always clear why the acid backs up. The reasons may vary from person to person. There may also be a genetic link in some GERD.

    Acid is kept in the stomach by a valve at the top of the stomach. The valve opens when food comes in. It should close to keep in the food and acid. If this valve does not close properly, the acid can flow out of the stomach. In addition to GERD, the valve may not close because of:

    • Problems with the nerves that make the valve open or close
    • Increased pressure in the stomach
    • Irritation in the stomach or muscles of the valve
    • Problem with the valve itself

  • Definition

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is the back up of acid or food from the stomach to the esophagus. The esophagus is the tube that connects your mouth and stomach. GER is common in infants. It may cause them to spit up. Most infants outgrow GER within 12 months.

    GER that progresses to esophageal injury and other symptoms is called gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The backed-up acid irritates the lining of the esophagus. It causes heartburn, a pain in the stomach and chest.

    GERD can occur at any age.

    Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease
    si1347 97870 1 gerd
    Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.

  • Diagnosis

    Your doctor will ask about your child’s symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. Your child may need to see a pediatric gastroenterologist. This type of doctor focuses on diseases of the stomach and intestines.

    Tests may include:


    • Images may need to be taken of your stomach and esophagus. This can be done with an
      upper GI series
      .

    • Tests may be done of your bodily tissues. This can be done with an
      upper endoscopy
      with biopsy.
    • 24-hour pH monitoring—a probe is placed in the esophagus to measure the level of acid
    • Short trial of medicine—the doctor may use the success or failure of a medication to understand the cause

  • Prevention

    Most causes of GERD in children are unknown. Some cases of GERD may be prevented by:

    • Following recommended lifestyle and dietary changes if your child had GER
    • Avoiding second-hand smoke

  • Risk Factors

    The following factors increase the chances of developing GERD:

    • Premature birth
    • Down syndrome

    • Neurological impairments such as
      intellectual disabilities
    • Cerebral palsy
    • Head injury
    • Hiatal hernia
    • Food allergies
    • Obesity
    • Certain medications
    • Exposure to tobacco smoke
    • Narrow or short esophagus
    • Delayed emptying of the stomach

  • Symptoms

    Symptoms of GERD include:

    • Regurgitation or vomiting
    • Bloody vomit
    • Weight loss or poor weight gain
    • Difficulty swallowing
    • Pain in the abdomen or chest

    • Frequent
      pneumonia
      or respiratory problems
    • Cough or wheezing
    • Hoarseness
    • Dental problems due to the effect of the stomach acid on the tooth's enamel
    • Feeling full almost immediately after eating
    • Chronic heartburn

  • Treatment

    Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for your child. Treatment options include the following: