• References

    Bernuau J. Acute liver failure: avoidance of deleterious co-factors and early specific medical therapy for the liver are better than late intensive care for the brain (review).
    J Hepatol. 2004;41:152-155.

    Butterworth RF. Role of circulating neurotoxins in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy: potential for improvement following their removal by liver assist devices.
    Liver Int. 2003;23(suppl 3):5-9. Review.

    Hepatic encephalopathy. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: Updated February 18, 2014. Accessed March 5, 2014.

    Highleyman L. Hepatitis C. HCV Advocate website. Available at: Published December 2002. Accessed February 17, 2014.

    Juretschke L. Kernicterus: still a concern.
    Neonatal Netw. 2005;24:7-9.

    Lizardi-Cervera J, Almeda P, Guevara L, et al. Hepatic encephalopathy: a review.
    Ann Hepatol. 2003;2:122-130. Review.

    Toftengi F, Larsen F. Management of patients with fulminant hepatic failure and brain edema.
    Metab Brain Dis. 2004;19:207-214.

    4/2/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance FDA approves new use of Xifaxan for patients with liver disease. US Food and Drug Administration website. Available at: Published March 24, 2010. Accessed February 17, 2014.

  • Resources

    National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse

    National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

  • Canadian Resources

    Canadian Liver Foundation