• References

    Chiasson JL, Aris-Jilwan N, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis and the hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state.
    Can Med Assoc J.

    Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic crisis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at:
    Updated January 12, 2013. Accessed September 4, 2013.

    Kim DW, Moon Y, et al. Blood-brain barrier disruption is
    involved in seizure and hemianopsia in nonketotic hyperglycemia.
    Neurologist. 2011 May;17(3):164-166.

    Kitabchi AE. Hyperglycemic crises in diabetes mellitus: diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state.
    Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am.

    Ondo WG. Hyperglycemic nonketotic states and other metabolic imbalances.
    Handb Clin Neurol. 2011;100:287-291.

    Stoner GD. Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state.
    Am Fam Physician.

    Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic syndrome (HHNS). American Diabetes Association website. Available at:
    Accessed September 4, 2013.

  • Resources

    American Diabetes Association

    National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse

  • Canadian Resources

    Canadian Diabetes Association