Academy of Pediatrics. Hypospadias: a birth defect in the penis. Academy of Pediatrics website. Available at:
. Accessed August 13, 2010.
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), National Guideline Clearinghouse. Hypospadias: guidelines in pediatric urology. AHRQ National Guideline Clearinghouse website. Available at:
. Published March 2008. Accessed August 13, 2010.
DynaMed Editorial Team. Hypospadias. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at:
. Updated June 2, 2010. Accessed August 19, 2010.
Mayo Clinic. Hypospadias. Mayo Clinic website. Available at:
. Updated January 22, 2009. Accessed August 13, 2010.
American Academy of Pediatrics
American Urological Association
Canadian Urological Association