• References

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    Mayo Clin Proc. 2008 Aug;83(8):897-907.

    Deen D. Metabolic syndrome: time for action.

    Am Fam Physician. 2004;69:2875-2882.

    Gami AS, Witt BJ, Howard DE, et al. Metabolic syndrome and risk of incident cardiovascular events and death.

    J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007;49:403-414.

    Grundy SM, Brewer HB, Cleeman JI, et al. Definition of metabolic syndrome: report of the NHLBI/AHA conference on scientific issues related to definition.

    Circulation. 2004;109:433-438.

    Grundy SM, Cleeman JI, Diniels SR, et al. AHA/NHLBI Diagnosis and management of the metabolic syndrome: an AHA/NHLBI Scientific Statement.

    Circulation. 2005;112:2735-2752.

    Metabolic syndrome. American Heart Association website. Available at: Accessed June 4, 2014.

    Metabolic syndrome. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: Updated March 29, 2013. Accessed June 4, 2014.

    What is metabolic syndrome?

    National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute website.

    Available at:

    Updated November 3, 2011. Accessed June 4, 2014.

    Wright JT, Harris-Haywood S, Pressel S, et al. Clinical outcomes by race in hypertensive patients with and without the metabolic syndrome (ALLHAT).

    Arch Int Med.


    1/13/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance Salas-Salvadó J, Fernández-Ballart J, Ros E, et al. Effect of a Mediterranean diet supplemented with nuts on metabolic syndrome status: one-year results of the PREDIMED randomized trial.

    Arch Intern Med.


    2/17/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance Davidson LE, Hudson R, Kilpatrick K, et al. Effects of exercise modality on insulin resistance and functional limitation in older adults: a randomized controlled trial.

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    5/11/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance Nettleton JA, Lutsey PL, Wang Y, Lima JA, Michos ED, Jacobs DR. Diet soda intake and risk of incident metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    Diabetes Care.


  • Resources

    American Heart Association

    National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

  • Canadian Resources

    Canadian Cardiovascular Society

    Canadian Diabetes Association