• References

    Acute otitis media. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: Updated June 2008. Accessed July 28, 2008.

    Hurst DS, Amin K, Seveus L, Venge P.
    Evidence of mast cell activity in the middle ears of children with otitis media with effusion.
    Laryngoscope. 1999;109:471-477.

    Otitis media (ear infection).
    National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders website. Available at:
    Published July 2003. Accessed July 29, 2008.

    Phillips BL. Otitis media, milk allergy, and folk medicine.

    Side Effects. Antibiotics. Side Effects website. Available at: Accessed November 30, 2010.

    10/12/2006 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance Spiro DM, Tay KY, Arnold DH, Dziura JD, Baker MD, Shapiro ED. Wait-and-see prescription for the treatment of acute otitis media: a randomized controlled trial.
    JAMA. 2006;296:1235-1241.

    9/23/2008 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance Coleman C, Moore M. Decongestants and antihistamines for acute otitis media in children.
    Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.
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    6/5/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance Foxlee R, Johansson A, Wejfalk J, Dawkins J, Dooley L, Del Mar C. Topical analgesia for acute otitis media.
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev.

    7/21/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance Pavia M, Bianco A, Nobile CG, Marinelli P, Angelillo IF. Efficacy of pneumococcal vaccination in children younger than 24 months: a meta-analysis.

    11/30/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance Coker TR, Chan LS, Newberry SJ, et al. Diagnosis, microbial epidemiology, and antibiotic treatment of acute otitis media in children: a systematic review.

    12/16/2011 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance Azarpazhooh A, Limeback H, Lawrence HP, Shah PS. Xylitol for preventing acute otitis media in children up to 12 years of age.
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev.

    3/18/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance
    : van Dongen TM, van der Heijden GJ, Venekamp RP, Rovers MM, Schilder AG. A trial of treatment for acute otorrhea in children with tympanostomy tubes. N Engl J Med. 2014;370(8):723-33

    3/31/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance Vernacchio L, Corwin MJ, et al. Xylitol syrup for the prevention of acute otitis media. Pediatrics. 2014 Feb;133(2):289-295.

  • Resources

    American Academy of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery

    National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders

  • Canadian Resources