• References

    American College of Rheumatology Subcommittee on Osteoarthritis. Recommendations for the medical management of osteoarthritis of the hip and knee. 2000 update.
    Arthritis Rheum.

    Jordan K, Arden N, et al. EULAR recommendations 2003: an evidence based approach to the management of knee osteoarthritis: report of a task force of the Standing Committee for International Clinical Studies Including Therapeutic Trials (ESCISIT).
    Ann Rheum Dis.

    Osteoarthritis. Arthritis Foundation
    website. Available at:
    Accessed September 3, 2013.

    Osteoarthritis. National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Disorders website. Available at: Updated July 2010. Accessed September 3, 2013.

    Sinusas, K. Osteoarthritis: Diagnosis and treatment.
    Am Fam Physician. 2012;85(1):49-56.

    van den Berg WB. Pathophysiology of osteoarthritis.
    Joint Bone Spine.

    DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance Fransen M, McConnell S. Exercise for osteoarthritis of the knee.
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev.

    DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance Rutjes WJ, Nuesch E, Sterchi R, et al. Transcutaneous electrostimulation for osteoarthritis of the knee.
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev.

    DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance Wandel S, Jüni P, Tendal B, et al. Effects of glucosamine, chondroitin, or placebo in patients with osteoarthritis of hip or knee: network meta-analysis.

    10/26/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance Massey T, Derry S, Moore R, McQuay H. Topical NSAIDs for acute pain in adults.
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev.

    11/15/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance US Food and Drug Administration. FDA clears Cymbalta to treat chronic musculoskeletal pain. US Food and Drug Administration website. Available at:
    Updated April 19, 2013. Accessed July 23, 2013.

    11/29/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance French HP, Brennan A, White B, Cusack T. Manual therapy for osteoarthritis of the hip or knee: a systematic review.
    Man Ther.

    7/15/2013 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance Dilek B, Gözüm M, Sahin E, et al. Efficacy of paraffin bath therapy in hand osteoarthritis: a single-blinded randomized controlled trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2013 Apr;94(4):642-9.

    6/18/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance MQIC guideline on medical management of adults with osteoarthritis. Available at: Updated August 1, 2013. Accessed June 18, 2014.

  • Resources

    American College of Rheumatology

    The Arthritis Foundation

  • Canadian Resources

    The Arthritis Society