• References

    Coco AS. Primary dysmenorrhea.
    Am Fam Physician. 1999;60:489-496.

    Dysmenorrhea. Cleveland Clinic website. Available at: Updated October 5, 2012. Accessed September 5, 2013.

    Dysmenorrhea. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: Updated June 3, 2013. Accessed September 5, 2013.

    Menstrual cycle problems. American Academy of Family Physicians website. Available at: Accessed September 5, 2013.

    Dysmenorrhea: symptoms. American Academy of Family Physicians' website. Available at: Updated January 2011. Accessed January 9, 2012.

    French L. Dysmenorrhea.
    Am Fam Physician. 2005;71:285-291.
    Available at: Accessed September 5, 2013.

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID): CDC fact sheet. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: Updated September 28, 2011. Accessed September 5, 2013.

    9/30/2008 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance Witt CM, Reinhold T, Brinkhaus B, et al. Acupuncture in patients with dysmenorrhea: a randomized study on clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness in usual care.
    Am J Obstet Gynecol.

    4/15/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance Osayande AS, Mehulic S. Diagnosis and initial management of dysmenorrhea. Am Fam Physician. 2014;89(5):341-346.

    6/18/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance Kannan P, Claydon LS. Some physiotherapy treatments may relieve menstrual pain in women with primary dysmenorrhea: a systematic review. J Physiother. 2014;60(1):13-21.

  • Resources

    American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists—American Academy of Family Physicians

  • Canadian Resources

    Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada

    Women's Health Matters