• References

    Casale R, Alaa L, et al. Phantom limb related phenomena and their rehabilitation after lower limb amputation.
    Eur J Phys Rehabil Med. 2009;45(4):559-566.

    Chahine L, Kanazi G, et al. Phantom limb syndrome: A review. Middle East J Anesthesiol. 2007;19(2):345-355.

    Flor H, Nikolajsen L, et al. Phantom limb pain: a case of maladaptive CNS plasticity?
    Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 2006;7:873-881.

    Foell J, Bekrater-Bodmann R, et al. Phantom limb pain after lower limb trauma: origins and treatments. Int J Low Extrem Wounds. 2011;10(4):224-235.

    Peripheral neuropathy. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: Updated December 2, 2013. Accessed December 3, 2013.

    Resources for pain management. Amputee Coalition website. Available at: Accessed December 3, 2013.

    Rothgangel AS, Braun SM, et al. The clinical aspects of mirror therapy in rehabilitation: a systematic review of the literature.

    Weeks SR, Anderson-Barnes VC, et al. Phantom limb pain: Theories and therapies. 2010;16(5):277-286.

    Wolff A, Vanduynhoven E, et al. 21. Phantom pain. Pain Pract. 2011;11(4):403-413.

  • Resources

    Amputee Coalition of America

    National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

  • Canadian Resources