• References

    Bleeding in pregnancy, placenta previa, placental abruption. Lucile-Packard Children's Hospital website.
    Available at:
    Accessed June 5, 2013.

    Neilson JP. Interventions for treating placental abruption.
    Cochrane Database for Syst Rev.

    Placental abruption. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: Updated February 14, 2013. Accessed June 5, 2013.

    Placental abruption: abruptio placentae. American Pregnancy Association website. Available at: Updated November 2006. Accessed June 5, 2013.

    Tikkanen M. Etiology, clinical manifestations, and prediction of placental abruption.
    Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2010;89(6):732-740.

  • Resources

    The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists

    American Pregnancy Association

  • Canadian Resources

    The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada