Pneumonia is an infection of the lungs. It affects the small airways and air sacs of the lungs. Pneumonia can be described by where and how your child was infected. Types include:
Viruses, bacteria, or other germs most often cause pneumonia. Cold or flu viruses are the most common cause of pneumonia in children. Rarely, pneumonia can be caused by food, liquid, or other lis that are inhaled.
The infection or inhaled substance causes irritation and swelling in the deeper areas of the lungs. Pus or other fluids can also build up in the area. The swelling and fluid make it difficult for oxygen to pass from the lungs to the blood.
Pneumonia is an infection of the lungs. It affects the small airways and air sacs of the lungs.
Pneumonia can be described by where and how your child was infected. Types include:
- Community-acquired—from the community, such as home, school or daycare
- Nosocomial—in a hospital or healthcare setting
- Aspiration—happens when foreign matter is inhaled into the lungs, such as food, liquid, saliva, or vomit
Pneumonia in the Air Sacs of the Lungs Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.
You will be asked about your child’s symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. The exam will evaluate your child’s breathing and lung sounds. Diagnosis will often be based on these findings.
The amount of oxygen may be measured with a small clip on your child’s finger. This will show how much the pneumonia is affecting the transfer of oxygen from the lungs to the blood.
Other tests may be done to find the specific germ causing the pneumonia. Tests may include:
- Blood tests
- Sputum culture
- Urine tests
Imaging tests may also be done to see what areas of the lungs are affected. Tests may include:
- Chest x-ray
Certain vaccines can help prevent pneumonia. Talk to your child’s doctor about options for your child such as:
- Flu vaccine—in all children aged six months and older
- Pneumococcal vaccine:
- PCV13 is recommended in all children, and routinely given to all children aged 2 months to 5 years
- PCV23 in children aged 2 years and older who have a high risk of infection or a suppressed immune system
- Hemophilus influenza type B vaccine, routinely given to all children aged 2 months to 5 years
- Pertussis (whooping cough) vaccine, routinely given to all children aged 2 months to 5 years as part of the DTaP vaccine
Some children may have a higher risk of pneumonia. Medication may be given to these children after a viral infection to help reduce their risk of pneumonia. Options include:
- Antiviral—for infants who are at high risk of developing pneumonia from respiratory syncytial virus
- Antibiotics—to prevent pneumonia in children with reduced immunity or certain underlying illnesses such as cystic fibrosis
To decrease your child’s risk of any respiratory infection:
- Do not expose your child to tobacco smoke. Smoke weakens the lungs' resistance to infection.
- Have your child avoid close contact with people who have a cold or the flu.
- Encourage your child to wash their hands often, especially after coming into contact with someone who is sick.
Pneumonia is more in children under the age of 5 years.
Factors that may increase your child’s risk of pneumonia include:
- Chronic conditions that affect the lungs, such as asthma or cystic fibrosis
- Exposure to tobacco smoke
- History of respiratory tract infections
- Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
- Birth defects of the heart or lungs
- Neuromuscular disorders that affect the lung function
- Chronic conditions that weaken the immune system
- Sickle-cell anemia
Pneumonia may cause respiratory symptoms, such as:
- Cough, which may or may not produce mucus
- Wheezing—a hoarse whistling sound
- Rapid breathing
- Shortness of breath, may cause flaring of nose
It may also cause nonrespiratory symptoms, such as:
- Chest pain
- Reduced activity levels
- Lack of appetite or difficulty feeding—may lead to dehydration
- Abdominal pain
- Bluish gray color around the nose, lips, or fingernails—in severe cases
Treatment of pneumonia depends on:
- What is causing the pneumonia
- Severity of symptoms
- Other factors, like the overall health of your child
Treatment options may include: