Pneumothorax is a condition in which air collects in the space between the lungs and the chest wall. This air pocket puts pressure on the lung and can collapse a portion of the lung.

  • Causes

    The chest cavity is normally a sealed chamber. Air can leak into the chamber through damaged lung tissue, chest wall, or the diaphragm, a muscles that separates the abdominal and chest cavity. The air can eventually become large enough to collapse a section of lung.

    Pneumothorax may be named according to its cause, for example:

    • Primary spontaneous pneumothorax—no known cause, but genetics may play a role.

    • Secondary spontaneous pneumothorax—caused by air leaks from damaged lung tissue. Tissue is often weakened from lung disease or injury.

    • Tension pneumothorax—caused by trauma to the lungs and/or chest cavity (ribs and muscles). This is the most serious type because it may affect the heart's ability to pump blood.
    • Catamenial pneumothorax (women only)—caused by small holes in the diaphragm muscle. Occurs within 72 hours of start or end of menstrual cycle and most often associated with endometriosis.
    Rib Fractures With Pneumothorax
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  • Definition

    Pneumothorax is a condition in which air collects in the space between the lungs and the chest wall. This air pocket puts pressure on the lung and can collapse a portion of the lung.

  • Diagnosis

    Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. Your doctor may be able to hear reduced or absent breath sounds on the affected side. The level of oxygen in your blood may be monitored with pulse oximetry.

    Your doctor will also need images of your chest cavity, including your heart and lung. Images may be taken with:

    • Chest x-ray
    • CT scan
    • Ultrasound

  • Prevention

    Prevention will depend on the cause. For healthier lungs, if you smoke, talk with your doctor about how you can quit.

    Other steps to reduce your risk include:

    • Wear a seatbelt when in a motor vehicle to help prevent accident-related chest trauma.
    • If you have a history of pneumothorax, it is often recommended that you avoid scuba diving.

  • Risk Factors

    Primary spontaneous pneumothorax is more common in young men, generally from teenagers up to the age of 30. Other factors that may increase your chance of primary spontaneous pneumothorax include smoking or having a genetic abnormality.

    Weakened lung tissue increases your risk of secondary spontaneous pneumothorax. Condition that can cause having weak lung tissue include:

    • Lung diseases such as:

      • COPD
        (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease)
      • Asthma
      • Cystic fibrosis
      • Tuberculosis
      • Pertussis
        (whooping cough)
      • Lung cancer

    • Connective tissue diseases, such as
      rheumatoid arthritis

    Factors that may increase your chance of tension pneumothorax include:

    • Penetrating or blunt force trauma to the chest
    • Having a medical or surgical procedure
    • Mechanical ventilation

  • Symptoms

    Pneumothorax may cause:

    • Sudden, sharp pain in the chest that becomes worse during coughing or taking deep breaths
    • Acute shortness of breath
    • Cough
    • Mild fever
    • Fatigue
    • Tightness in the chest
    • Rapid heartbeat
    • Bluish color of the skin due to a lack of oxygen
    • Flaring of the nostrils

    • Feelings of
      , stress, and tension

    Contact your doctor if you are having these symptoms.

    If you have lung disease be aware of the symptoms associated with pneumothorax. Get help as soon as symptoms arise.

  • Treatment

    A small pneumothorax may resolve on its own or with oxygen therapy and observation. A larger pneumothorax and tension pneumothorax always require treatment. Treatment focuses on removing the air from the space so the lung can again expand to its full capacity.

    You may also need treatment for health conditions that are causing the pneumothorax.

    Follow-up is an important part of any pneumthorax treatment plan. More than half of people with a pneumothorax have a recurrence.