Seizure Disorder -- Child

A seizure is abnormal electrical activity in the brain. When two or more seizures occur, it is considered a seizure disorder, also known as epilepsy. While there are many different types of seizures, the main categories are:

  • Causes

    Seizure disorder is caused by abnormal brain function. It is often difficult to identify the exact cause, but some factors that may play a role include:

    • Genetic disorder

    • Brain abnormalities or damage such as infection,
      trauma
      ,
      tumor
      , or bleeding into the brain

  • Definition


    A
    seizure
    is abnormal electrical activity in the brain. When two or more seizures occur, it is considered a seizure disorder, also known as epilepsy. While there are many different types of seizures, the main categories are:

    • Generalized seizure—activity occurs throughout the brain
    • Partial seizure, also called a focal seizure—begins within certain areas of the brain
    Generalized Seizure
    Generalized seizure
    Abnormal and excessive electrical activity in the brain.
    Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.

  • Diagnosis

    The doctor will ask about your child’s symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.

    Your bodily fluids may be tested. This can be done with:

    • Blood tests
    • Lumbar puncture

    Images may be taken of your bodily structures. This can be done with:

    • MRI scan
    • CT scan

    Your brain may be tested. This can be done with:

    • Electroencephalogram
      (EEG)
    • Magnetoencephalography (MEG)

  • Prevention

    There are no known ways to prevent every type of seizure disorder. You can take steps to prevent your child from brain injuries or conditions that could lead to seizures:

    • Get prenatal care.
    • Be sure that your child always wears a helmet when doing certain activities such as bike riding, skateboarding, and playing contact sports.
    • Have your child wear seat belts or sit in a car seat when riding in a car.
    • Teach your child never to dive into water. To be safe, your child should always go into the water feet first.

  • Risk Factors

    Factors that increase the risk of a seizure disorder include:

    • Premature birth
      or low birth weight
    • Damage to brain during birth
    • Abnormal brain structure
    • Traumatic brain injury
    • Brain infection
    • Brain tumor
    • History of febrile seizures
    • Seizure within the first month after birth
    • Family history of seizure disorder

    • Cysticercosis—an infection caused by a pork
      tapeworm

  • Symptoms

    Symptoms can vary depending on the type of seizure disorder. Examples of symptoms include:

    • Aura—a sensation at the start of a seizure such as perception of an odd smell or sound, spots appearing in front of the eyes, or stomach sensations
    • Staring, eye blinking, or eye rolling
    • Loss of consciousness
    • Repeated jerking of a single limb
    • Uncontrollable jerking of muscles
    • Hand rubbing, lip smacking, or picking at clothing
    • Loss of bladder or bowel control
    • Drowsiness or confusion after a seizure

  • Treatment

    You will work with the doctor to choose a treatment plan that is right for your child. Treatments options include: