Shaken Baby Syndrome

Shaken baby syndrome is a group of symptoms in babies or small children. They may be temporary problems, severe disabilities, or death. The symptoms are caused by injuries from a violent shaking or hit to the head. The severity of the symptoms will depend on the type of injuries to the baby's brain.

  • Causes

    Shaken baby syndrome is caused by shaking or jerking a baby or young child. Even a few seconds of shaking can injure a baby. Babies and young children are more vulnerable to injuries from this type of movement because:

    • The neck muscles of young children, especially babies, are not strong. It can be tough for them to fully support their heavy heads or protect themselves from harsh movements.
    • Baby's brains are more fragile than adults. Shaking movements can cause the brain to move back and forth inside their skulls. The movement can injure the brain and tear small blood vessels. The bleeding can affect the brain and the eyes.

    Shaken baby syndrome usually happens when a parent or other caregiver becomes angry or frustrated. It often happens because the baby will not stop crying.

    Brain Bruised from Whiplash—Similar Effect in Shaken Baby Syndrome
    Whiplash brain
    Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.

  • Definition

    Shaken baby syndrome
    is a group of symptoms in babies or small children. They may be temporary problems, severe disabilities, or death. The symptoms are caused by injuries from a violent shaking or hit to the head. The severity of the symptoms will depend on the type of injuries to the baby's brain.

  • Diagnosis

    Your doctor will ask about your child’s symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. An eye exam may also be done. Your child may be referred to doctors who specialize in brain injuries. This may include a neurologist or neurosurgeon.

    Images may be taken of your child's bodily structures. This can be done with:

    • CT scan
    • MRI scan
    • X-rays

    Your child's bodily fluids may be tested. This can be done with blood tests.

  • Prevention

    It is important to talk to anyone caring for your baby about the dangers of shaking. Taking care of a crying baby can be very frustrating for anyone. If you have tried to calm the crying baby, but feel like nothing is working, then stay in control of your temper. Keep from hurting the baby out of frustration. If you feel you might lose control, take the following steps:

    • Take a deep breath and count to 10.
    • Take time out. Place your child in a safe place, like the crib. Let your baby cry alone.
    • Call someone close to you for emotional support. Ask friends or family for help to care for your baby.
    • Call your baby’s doctor. There may be a medical reason why your child is crying.

    Share this information with anyone who is caring for the baby.

  • Risk Factors

    The following factors increase the chance of a shaking injury:

    • Family with history of domestic or child abuse
    • Family with history of drug and/or alcohol abuse
    • Family with history of stress or social difficulties
    • Boys are more likely to be abused in this way than girls

  • Symptoms

    Symptoms can vary based on the severity of the injury. The injury depends on the length of time the baby is shaken or how hard the baby's head has hit a surface. Injuries caused by shaking are often extremely serious and can include:

    • Failure-to-thrive
      —not growing as expected
    • Poor feeding or vomiting
    • Seizures or spasms
    • Weakness
    • Semi-consciousness or loss of consciousness—not fully awake or aware of surroundings
    • Difficulty breathing
    • Dilated or unresponsive pupils
    • Swollen head
    • Lethargy or irritability

    These are serious symptoms. If your baby has any of the above symptoms, then go to the emergency room right away.

    There are not always bruises or other signs of injury to the child’s head or body. If there are visible injuries they may be:

    • Bruising of the part of the body used as a handle for shaking
    • Fractures of the arm bones, leg bones, and/or ribs

  • Treatment

    It is important to get medical care right away if your baby is severely or violently shaken. Immediately take your child to an emergency room. Early medical care may decrease the amount of brain damage. Don't let embarrassment, guilt, or fear get in the way of protecting your child's health or life.

    The goal of immediate care is to stop any further brain damage and support the baby. Early intervention is treatment or therapy to help your baby's long term recovery.


    If your baby is diagnosed with shaken baby syndrome, follow your doctor's
    instructions
    .