• References

    Abrams GD, Safran MR. Diagnosis and management of superior labrum anterior
    posterior lesions in overhead athletes.
    Br J Sports Med. 2010 Apr;44(5):311-318.

    Dumont GD, Russell RD, et al. Anterior shoulder instability: a review of pathoanatomy, diagnosis, and treatment.
    Curr Rev Musculoskelet Med. 2011 Aug 2.

    Gaskill TR, Taylor DC, et al.
    J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2011 Dec 19(12):758-767.

    Luime JJ, Verhagen AP, et al. Does this patient have an instability of the shoulder or a labrum lesion?
    JAMA. 2004;292:1989-1999.

    Mahaffey BL. Smith PA. Shoulder instability in young athletes.
    Am Fam Physician. 1999;59:2773.

    Provencher MT, Frank RM, et al. The Hill-Sachs lesion: diagnosis, classification, and management.
    J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2012 Apr;20(4):242-252.

    Recurrent subluxation of shoulder. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: Updated September 6, 2012. Accessed November 21, 2013.

    van Tongel A, Karelse A, et al. Posterior shoulder instability: current concepts review. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2011 Sep;19(9):1547-1553.

    von der Heyde RL. Occupational therapy interventions for shoulder conditions: a systematic review.
    Am J Occup Ther. 2011 Jan-Feb;65(1):16-23.

    Wolf JM, Cameron KL, et al. Impact of joint laxity and hypermobility on the musculoskeletal system.
    J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2011 Aug;19(8):463-471.

  • Resources

    American Academy of Family Physicians

    American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons

  • Canadian Resources

    Canadian Orthopaedic Association

    Canadian Orthopaedic Foundation