Spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons website.
Accessed December 28, 2012.
Spondylolisthesis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at:
Updated September 6, 2012. Accessed December 28, 2012.
American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
North American Spine Society
Canadian Orthopaedic Association
Canadian Orthopaedic Foundation