• References

    Cecil RL, Goldman L, Bennett JC.
    Cecil Textbook of Medicine. 21st ed. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders Company; 2000.

    Ebell MH, Smith MA, Barry HC, Ives K, Carey M. Does the patient have strep throat?
    JAMA. 2000; 284:2912-2918.

    Montagnani F, Stolzuoli L, Croci L, et al.Erythromycin resistance in Streptococcus pyogenes and macrolide consumption in a central Italian region.
    Infection. 2009 Aug;37(4):353-357.

    Neuner JM, Hamel MB, Phillips RS, Bona K, Aronson MD. Diagnosis and management of adults with pharyngitis. A cost effectiveness study.
    Ann Intern Med. 2003;139:113-122.

    Pace B. JAMA patient page. Strep throat.
    JAMA. 2000;284(22):2964.

    Ressel G. Practice guidelines:
    principles of appropriate antibiotic use:
    part IV: acute pharyngitis.
    Am Fam Physician. 2001;64(5):870-875.

    Sore throats.
    American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery website. Available at: Accessed October 12, 2005.

    Strep throat. Mayo Clinic website.
    Available at:
    Accessed November 10, 2007.

    Streptococcal pharyngitis. DynaMed website. Available at:
    Accessed November 10, 2007.

  • Resources

    American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery—American Academy of Family Physicians

  • Canadian Resources