• References

    Bothe AK, Davidow JH, et al. Stuttering treatment research 1970-2005:I. Systematic review incorporating trial quality assessment of behavioral, cognitive, and related approaches.
    Am J Speech Lang Pathol. 2006;15:321-352

    Gordon N. Stuttering: incidence and causes.
    Dev Med Child Neurol.

    American Speech-Language-Hearing Association website. Available at:
    Accessed May 20, 2013.

    National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders website. Available at:
    Updated March 2010. Accessed May 20, 2013.

    Perkins WH.
    Anomalous anatomy of speech-language areas in adults with persistent developmental stuttering.
    Neurology. 2002;58:332-333

    Prasse JE, Kiakano GE. Stuttering: an overview.
    American Family Physician.

    Sommer M, Koch MA, et al. Disconnection of speech-relevant brain areas in persistent developmental stuttering.

    What is stuttering? The National Stuttering Association website. Available at:
    Accessed May 20, 2013.

    Yairi E, Ambrose NG. Early childhood stuttering: persistency and recovery rates.
    J Speech Lang Hear Res.

  • Resources

    National Stuttering Association

    Stuttering Foundation of America

  • Canadian Resources

    Canadian Stuttering Association

    Institute for Stuttering Treatment and Research