• References

    Chou LB. Disorders of the first metatarsophalangeal joint.
    Phys Sportsmed
    . 2000;28:32-45.

    Churchill SR, Donley BG. Managing injuries of the great toe.
    Phys Sportsmed
    ; 1998.

    Foot sprain. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at:
    . Updated November 3, 2012. Accessed May 1, 2013.

    Mullen JE, O'Malley MJ. Sprains—residual instability of subtalar, Lisfranc joints, and turf toe.
    Clinics in Sports Medicine
    . 2004;23(1):97-121.

    Pommering TL. Ankle and foot injuries in pediatric and adult athletes.
    Prim Care
    . 2005;32(1):133-161.

    Renstrom P.
    Sports Injuries: Basic Principles of Prevention and Care
    . Boston, MA: Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1993.

  • Resources

    American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons

    American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

  • Canadian Resources

    British Columbia Podiatric Medical Association

    Achilles Foot Health Centre