• References

    Catanzarite VA. The two-vessel cord: how concerned should we be?
    Contemporary Ob/Gyn. 1997;43-54.

    Dildy GA, Clark SL. Umbilical cord prolapse.
    Contemporary Ob/Gyn. 1993;23-31.

    Lee W, et al. Vasa previa: prenatal diagnosis, natural evolution, and clinical outcome.
    Obstet Gynecol. 2000;95(4):572-576.

    Levy H, Meier P, et al. Umbilical cord prolapse.
    Obstet Gynecol. 1984;64(4):499-502.

    Umbilical cord prolapse. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: Updated November 22, 2011. Accessed June 5. 2013.

    Umbilical cord prolapse. The Cleveland Clinic Health Information Center website. Available at:
    Accessed June 5, 2013.

  • Resources

    The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists

    American Pregnancy Association

  • Canadian Resources

    The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada