Ventricular Septal Defect

A ventricular septal defect (VSD) is a defect in the wall called the septum that is between the heart's two lower chambers called the ventricles. A septal defect is often referred to as a hole in the heart. Normally, the right side of the heart receives oxygen-poor blood and pumps it to the lungs where it is filled with oxygen. The blood is then sent back to the left side of the heart, which pumps oxygen-rich blood to the rest of the body. But with VSD, the heart pumps inefficiently. The oxygen-rich blood is pumped back to the lungs. VSD can lead to enlargement of the heart and high blood pressure in the blood vessels of the lungs.

  • Causes


    Most VSDs are a type of congenital heart defect, meaning they are present at birth. It is unclear why VSDs develop, but genetics may play a part. Although rare, some VSDs can occur after a
    heart attack
    or trauma.

  • Definition

    A ventricular septal defect (VSD) is a defect in the wall called the septum that is between the heart's two lower chambers called the ventricles. A septal defect is often referred to as a hole in the heart.

    Normally, the right side of the heart receives oxygen-poor blood and pumps it to the lungs where it is filled with oxygen. The blood is then sent back to the left side of the heart, which pumps oxygen-rich blood to the rest of the body. But with VSD, the heart pumps inefficiently. The oxygen-rich blood is pumped back to the lungs.

    VSD can lead to enlargement of the heart and high blood pressure in the blood vessels of the lungs.

    Ventricular Septal Defect
    Ventral septal defect
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  • Diagnosis

    Your doctor will ask about your child's symptoms and medical history. The exam will include listening to your child's heart to detect a heart murmur. If a heart problem is suspected, your child will likely be referred to a pediatric cardiologist. This is a doctor who specializes in heart problems in babies and children.

    Your heart may need to be viewed. This can be done with:

    • Echocardiogram
    • Chest x-ray
    • Cardiac catheterization


    Your heart activity may be tested. This can be done with
    electrocardiogram
    .

    Your bodily fluids may need to be tested. This can be done with blood tests.

    The oxygen in your blood may be tested. This can be done with pulse oximetry.

    Cardiac Catheterization
    Cardiac Catheterization
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  • Prevention

    Since it is unclear what causes congenital VSDs, there is no known way to prevent them. Acquired VSDs may be prevented by early treatment of heart attacks.

  • Risk Factors

    Factors that increase your chances of VSD include:

    • Age: young infants and children
    • Parent with a septal defect

    • Genetic defects such as
      Down syndrome
      or other inherited disorders

    • Use of
      alcohol
      , phenylhydantoin, or isotretinoin
    • Rubella
      during the first trimester of pregnancy

    • Maternal
      diabetes
      or phenylketonuria

  • Symptoms

    A small VSD may not cause symptoms Some VSDs may cause the following symptoms:

    • Heart murmur

    • Signs of heart failure during infancy

      • Difficulty feeding
      • Poor growth
      • Fast breathing

  • Treatment

    Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you or your child. Treatment options include the following: