• References

    Antatomic problems of the lower GI tract. National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse website. Available at: Updated December 28, 2012. Accessed June 14, 2013.

    Lal SK, Morgenstern R, et al. Sigmoid volvulus an update. Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am. 2006;16(1):175-187.

    Osiro SB, Cunningham D, et al. The twisted colon: a review of sigmoid volvulus. Am Surg. 2012;78(3):271-279.

    Sigmoid volvulus. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: Updated June 21, 2010. Accessed June 14, 2013.

  • Resources

    American Gastroenterological Society

    American College of Surgeons

  • Canadian Resources

    Canadian Association of Gastroenterology

    Canadian Association of General Surgeons