Antatomic problems of the lower GI tract. National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse website. Available at: http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/anatomiccolon/index.aspx. Updated December 28, 2012. Accessed June 14, 2013.
Lal SK, Morgenstern R, et al. Sigmoid volvulus an update. Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am. 2006;16(1):175-187.
Osiro SB, Cunningham D, et al. The twisted colon: a review of sigmoid volvulus. Am Surg. 2012;78(3):271-279.
Sigmoid volvulus. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php. Updated June 21, 2010. Accessed June 14, 2013.
American Gastroenterological Society
American College of Surgeons
Canadian Association of Gastroenterology
Canadian Association of General Surgeons