• Cardiac Catheterization

    Cardiac catheterization (sometimes called coronary angiography) is an invasive test that allows your cardiologist to take pictures of the arteries in the heart using a catheter (long, hollow tube) threaded into the heart through a blood vessel in the leg or sometimes through the arm. This test identifies narrowing’s or blockages in the heart with 100 percent accuracy and allows your cardiologist to determine the best treatment for your heart disease. Catheterization is also important for evaluating the heart’s pumping function as well as certain heart valve problems.   


  • Cardiac Device Implantation

    Sometimes lifestyle change and medication aren’t enough to combat heart disease. When other treatments are no longer effective, your physician may recommend an implantable cardiac device (pacemaker) to help monitor and or regulate the rhythm of your heart. There are different types of implantable devices, and it depends on your diagnosis as to which type your doctor will choose for you. Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) pacemakers help a very slow heart beat more regularly. Implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) shock the heart when it is beating too fast to prevent cardiac arrest. Additionally, some devices have been developed that can do both.

  • Cardioversion

    Cardioversion is a procedure performed in the hospital with the patient fully sedated. An electric shock is used to convert abnormal heart rhythms such as atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter back to normal. Afterwards, medications are used to keep the heart rhythm normal.   

  • Carotid Doppler Ultrasound

    A cardiac ultrasound is a useful non-invasive tool to evaluate the structure and function of the heart and associated vessels and heart valves. The test is performed by a specially trained technologist, called a sonographer, and is interpreted by our physicians. Echocardiography is fast, painless and helpful for evaluating a wide variety of cardiac abnormalities.

  • Coronary Intervention (PCI)

    Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a procedure used to restore blood flow through narrowed or blocked arteries in the heart. Blockages in the coronary arteries are the cause of angina (chest pain and similar symptoms) and ultimately can lead to myocardial infarction (heart attack). PCI involves the insertion of a balloon into the artery which is then inflated to push the buildup of materials against the wall of the artery. Typically, a metal mesh tube called a stent is mounted on the balloon and, once deployed, serves as a scaffolding to hold the artery open at the site of the intervention. The use of drug-eluting stents has reduced the recurrence rate of blockage after a stent to extremely low levels.

  • Coumadin Clinic

    Orlando Health Heart Institute Cardiology Group offers a clinic devoted to our patients who are taking Coumadin, which is also known as Warfarin or Jantoven. Coumadin is an anticoagulant medication prescribed for patients to reduce the risk of their body forming a blood clot, which can lead to a heart attack, stroke or even death. Patients on Coumadin must have frequent blood tests, called PT/INR, to assure the effect of the blood thinner remains in the desired range. Our Coumadin clinic offers the PT/INR test via a simple finger stick rather than a venous blood draw. We offer our patients immediate test results and dosing instructions. In addition, we provide personalized education regarding Coumadin side effects as well as education regarding the effects of various foods and other medications that can affect the test results. The patient’s next appointment is scheduled before they leave our office therefore offering continuity of care. 



  • Echocardiography

    A cardiac ultrasound is a useful non-invasive tool to evaluate the structure and function of the heart and associated vessels and heart valves. The test is performed by a specially trained technologist, called a sonographer, and is interpreted by our physicians. Echocardiography is fast, painless and helpful for evaluating a wide variety of cardiac abnormalities.

  • Electrophysiology Studies

    An electrophysiology (EP) study is similar to a cardiac catheterization in that catheters are placed through the blood vessels in your groin into your heart. This specialized study is used to assess the heart’s electrical function under controlled conditions. It is used to diagnose and in, many cases, treat arrhythmias using radiofrequency (RF) ablation. This study can also assess the patient’s need for pacemaker or defibrillator.    

  • Holter & Cardiac Event Monitoring

    Holter monitors record your heart beat as you go about your daily activities. This monitoring helps the doctors evaluate the functioning of your heart. If your physician has ordered a Holter monitor, you will be coming to the office to receive the monitor and keeping it for 24 hours. Small painless electrodes will be placed on your chest. They connect to the lightweight recording unit, which attaches to a belt or shoulder strap.

    The most common type of cardiac event monitor is called a loop monitor. When you feel symptoms, you press a button and the monitor records your heartbeat. Other types of event monitors are worn on your wrist or carried in a purse or pocket. When you feel symptoms, you activate the device by pressing a button or holding the monitor to your chest.

  • Nuclear Medicine

    Orlando Health has a state-of-the-art nuclear medicine department where non-invasive tests are performed. A nuclear stress test can determine if your heart muscle is getting the blood supply it needs. After a small amount of a radionuclide is injected into your blood, our nuclear camera takes pictures of your heart. A nuclear stress test usually consists of two phases: The first phase includes imaging while you are at rest, and the second phase images are obtained after you exercise on the treadmill. A different approach that does not require exercising is utilized for patients that cannot exercise, so that we may obtain the same results. The radioactive material is quickly and safely cleared from your body. 

  • Peripheral Vascular Studies

    Orlando Health offers both non-invasive and invasive procedures for the evaluation and treatment of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). PAD includes blockages in almost any artery of the body besides the heart. Blockages can occur in the legs, which result in pain with walking (“claudication”) and in very severe cases, critical limb ischemia (pain at rest and/or non healing ulcers which may require amputation if not treated). Another important area where blockages can occur is in the carotid arteries in the neck, which carry blood to the brain. Untreated blockages in the carotid arteries can lead to a stroke. Both leg and carotid arterial blockages can be assessed in the office with duplex ultrasound -- a safe, non-invasive, painless procedure. In some cases, CT angiography (CTA), an additional non-invasive imaging procedure, can more accurately measure arterial blockages. Just as cardiac catheterization can be used to accurately define blockages in the coronary arteries, peripheral angiography can be used to take pictures of the arteries in the legs as well as the carotid arteries. In many cases, such blockages can be non-surgically cleared through a catheter using a variety of interventional procedures such as atherectomy (plaque removal), balloon angioplasty, and stenting.  These procedures often provide a safe and effective alternative to surgical revascularization.

  • Tilt Table Testing

    A tilt table test is used to evaluate the cause of unexplained fainting or severe lightheadedness. During the test, your blood pressure and heart rate are monitored. You begin by lying flat on a table. The table is then tilted to raise the upper part of your body— simulating a change in position from lying down to standing up. This test allows doctors to evaluate your body’s cardiovascular response to this change in position. When you stand up, gravity causes blood to pool in your leg veins, reducing the amount of blood that returns to your heart. This can cause your blood pressure to decrease (orthostatic hypotension). Normally, one’s body quickly compensates but if these mechanisms do not work normally, the drop in blood pressure can be severe enough to cause fainting.