• References

    Agarwala N, Hasiak N, Shade M. Graft interposition colpocleisis, perineorrhaphy, and tension-free sling for pelvic organ prolapse and stress urinary incontinence in elderly patients.
    J Minim Invasive Gynecol.

    Bladder prolapse (cystocele/fallen bladder). American Association of Urology Foundation website. Available at: Updated January 2011. Accessed December 2, 2013.

    Kobashi KC, Leach GE. Pelvic prolapse.
    Journal of Urology.

    Pelvic organ prolapse. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: Updated October 30, 2013. Accessed December 2, 2013.

    Vaginal prolapse surgery. The Royal Women's Hospital website. Available at:
    . Updated January 2008. Accessed December 2, 2013.

    6/2/2011 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance Mills E, Eyawo O, Lockhart I, Kelly S, Wu P, Ebbert JO.
    Smoking cessation reduces postoperative complications: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Am J Med.

    6/9/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance Sung VW. Rardin CR, et al. Changes in bowel symptoms 1 year after rectocele repair. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2012 Nov;207(5):423.e1-5.

  • Resources

    American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists

    National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse

  • Canadian Resources

    Canadian Urological Association

    The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada