• References

    Cystoscopy and ureteroscopy. National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse website. Available at: Updated March 28, 2012. Accessed May 22, 2013.

    Cystoscopy for women. Johns Hopkins Medicine website. Available at:,P07723/. Accessed May 22, 2013.

    Marickar YM, Nair N, et al. Retrieval methods for urinary stones.
    Urol Res. 2009;37(6):369-376.

  • Resources

    American Urological Association Foundation

    National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

  • Canadian Resources

    Canadian Urological Association

    Kidney Foundation of Canada